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If the Scriptures have been interpreted and applied correctly with regard to the identification of the “lost” Israelites, then one would expect to find non-Biblical supplementary evidence which would also support such a conclusion.
In various studies which have calculated the population of Israel and Judah at the time of their captivities, it has been estimated there were anywhere from 5 to 30 million Israelites who were taken captive and moved out of their homeland. In Ezra 2:64 we are told that 49,697 Israelites (specifically those from the house of Judah which was composed of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and some Levites) returned to Jerusalem and the near vicinity from the Babylonian captivity. Using the most conservative figures of 5 million Israelites (from all twelve tribes) in existence at that time, and subtracting the approximate 50,000 who returned to Jerusalem, we should begin to wonder what happened to the more than 4,950,000 Israelites who did not return with the 50,000 Judahites.
The following diagram taken from the Bible Law Course will help us better grasp the enormity of the number of Israelites unaccounted for after the return to Jerusalem. With each star representing 50,000 people, the entire chart represents the conservative figure of 5,000,000 Israelites.
This graphically illustrates the absurdity of the claim that all the Israelites, both the house of Judah and the house of Israel, in their entirety, returned to Jerusalem. So, what happened to the 4,950,000 to 29,950,000 “missing” Israelites?
Is it possible to track the “missing” Israelites? According to 2 Kings 17:5-6, we are told that the Israelites (the ten northern tribes along with a majority from the two southern tribes) taken into Assyrian captivity* were relocated “in Halah and Habor, on the river of Gozan….” in Media. As time progressed the Israelites who had been displaced began a gradual northwest migration. Both James and the Apostle Peter made mention of this continued migration into further countries and distant lands. The New Testament writer, James, testified of this continued dispersion in a general sense:
James … to the twelve tribes [of Israel] who are dispersed abroad [among Gentile nations]…. (James 1:1)
*It is not usually recognized that during the Assyrian captivity, a majority of the people from the house of Judah were taken along with a majority of the house of Israel. 2 Kings 18:13 records: “Now in the fourteenth year of [the house of Judah’s] King Hezekiah, Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah and seized them.” In 2 Kings 19:4 we find that those remaining of the house of Judah were identified as only a “remnant.” It was requested of Isaiah: “Therefore, offer a prayer for the remnant [of the house of Judah] that is left.”
It is important to note that the English word “dispersed” in this verse is translated from the Greek word “diaspora.” It is #1290 in Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible and is translated:
diaspora … from #1289: dispersion, i.e. (spec. and concr.) the (converted) Isr[aelite] resident[s] in Gentile countries: – (which are) scattered (abroad).2
The Apostle Peter is more specific in addressing to where those Israelites migrated after leaving Halah and Habor:
Peter … to those [Israelites] who reside as aliens, scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia…. (1 Peter 1:1)
The Apostle Peter does not specifically mention the “twelve tribes” as James did, but there is no question that he was writing to the same people. The English word “scattered” in this verse is translated from the same Greek word “diaspora” that James used. Remember Strong’s defines this word as: Israelite resident(s) in Gentile countries. 1 Peter 1:1 can thus be understood to say:
“[The Apostle] Peter … to those who reside as aliens, Israelites of the dispersion who now reside in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia….”
This Scripture supplies first-century evidence that the Judahites in Jerusalem were aware of the northwest migrations of their Israelite kinsmen.
Flavius Josephus, the first-century Jewish historian and contemporary of the Apostle Peter (considered by most scholars to be one of the greatest historians of all time), verifies the existence and location of this immense number of Israelites. In Antiquities of the Jews Josephus made this statement:
… there are but two tribes [of Israel] in Asia and Europe subject to the Romans, while the ten tribes are beyond the Euphrates till now, and are an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers.3
Josephus described these Israelites as “an immense multitude, and not to be estimated by numbers.” Josephus found many of the 4,950,000-29,950,000 “missing” Israelites. In harmony with the inspired writings of the Apostle Peter, Josephus identified this innumerable multitude as being “beyond the Euphrates.”
Josephus’ statement should not surprise any serious student of the Bible since it fulfills the Prophet Ahijah’s prophecy:
…YHWH will strike Israel, as a reed shaken in the water; and He will uproot Israel from this good land [Canaan] which He gave to their fathers, and will scatter them beyond the Euphrates River, because they have made their Asherim [idols], provoking YHWH to anger. (1 Kings 14:15)
After making reference to the passage from Josephus, the May 2, 1879, edition of the Jewish Chronicle recorded:
There has always been, however, an unwillingness to admit that a fate which has befallen so many nations has overtaken the Ten Tribes [the house of Israel]. Why should they have been less tenacious of life than their brethren of Judah? Nay, the Scriptures speak of a future restoration of Israel, which is clearly to include both [the house of] Judah and Ephraim [the house of Israel]. The problem, then, is reduced to the simplest form. The Ten Tribes [of Israel] are certainly still in existence. All that has to be done is to discover which people represents them.4
This becomes very interesting in light of what many preachers are teaching their flocks. Some erroneously teach that the ten tribes of the house of Israel returned to Jerusalem with the house of Judah. Others erroneously teach that by the first century A.D. the ten tribes had all disappeared, having been swallowed up and amalgamated among non-Israelite Gentiles. For example, in his book Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament for the English Reader, Kenneth Samuel West presented this specious idea:
It is easy to see how the name [Israel] extended to the whole nation. When the ten tribes were carried into Assyria, and were absorbed and lost among the [Gentile] nations….5
The Apostle Peter, James, and Flavius Josephus testified to the error of this position. In a prophecy clearly fulfilled in the first century and thereafter, the Prophet Micah revealed that these Israelites, rather than being “absorbed and lost,” would flourish among the heathen peoples and nations:
The remnant of Jacob [of the nation of Israel] will be among many peoples like dew from YHWH, like showers on vegetation…. And the remnant of Jacob will be among the [non-Israelite] nations, among many [non-Israelite GENTILE] peoples…. (Micah 5:7-8)
Earlier in this same prophecy (which foretold Yeshua’s – Jesus’ given Hebrew name – birth), Micah also established that the scattered sons of Israel, the remnant of Jacob, were not to be lost forever:
…Bethlehem Ephrathah, too little to be among the clans of Judah, from you One [Yeshua the Christ – Matt. 2:1-6; Lk. 2:4-7] will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel [over both houses, all twelve tribes]. His goings forth are from long ago, from the days of eternity. Therefore, He [YHWH] will give them up [the divorcement of the house of Israel] until the time when she [Mary] who is in labor has borne a child. Then the remainder of His brethren [the remnant of the house of Israel scattered among the Gentiles] will return to the sons [nation] of Israel [with Yeshua’s birth, death, burial, and resurrection a remnant of the two divided houses were reunited into one nation]. And He [Yeshua] will arise and shepherd His flock …And this One [Yeshua] will be our [the nation of Israel’s] peace [ending all animosity between the two houses of Israel – Eph. 2:11-22]. (Micah 5:2-5)
If Mr. West is correct and the ten tribes were “absorbed and lost,” then this prophecy could never have been fulfilled, and our God would have been proven a liar. YHWH does not lie, and the house of Israel was still in existence during and after the first century, and they have survived to this day.
Subsequent to the epistles and 1 Peter, we have no further Scriptural record concerning the continuing migration of the Israelites. Are we left to guess as to what then happened to this scattered multitude of people? No, archeology and history pick up the migrations of Israel where the Scriptures leave off.
In recent years, some fourteen-hundred Assyrian cuneiform tablets have been correctly deciphered. These tablets provide us with invaluable clues which bridge the gap between the Israelites of Biblical antiquity and secular history.
Biblical archeologist and historian E. Raymond Capt commented on these Assyrian tablets in his book Abrahamic Covenant:
From these areas in Media and northern Mesopotamia the Israelites were taken (between 745-700 B.C.) and became the so-called Lost Tribes of Israel. After a lapse of over 2500 years, it might be thought that all hope of tracing the Israelites had been lost in the mists of antiquity. But archeologists have, during the last hundred years, unearthed and published the original contemporary records of the Assyrians who took the Israelites captive, and it is from these records that vital clues have come to light. The clues, in the form of cuneiform tablets, identify the lost Israelites with the Assyrian name “Gimira.” They further record their migrations out of Asia Minor….
The Assyrian records reveal one group of Gimira (Israelites) escaped to the shores of the Black Sea during the second year of [Assyrian King] Esarhaddon, 679 B.C.6
Throughout his book, Mr. Capt documents the continued migrations of the Israelites and records their name changes as they encounter other tribes and peoples.* Even The Jewish Encyclopedia testifies to the fact that the Israelites must have undergone name changes:
TRIBES, LOST TEN: …If the ten tribes [of Israel] have disappeared, the literal fulfillment of the [Old Testament] prophecies would be impossible; if they have not disappeared, obviously they [the house of Israel and the majority of the house of Judah] must exist under a different name.7
*By far the most detailed account of the Israelite migrations and name changes is found in Mr. Capt’s more recent work which I recommend for its thorough examination and study of these vital records. Refer to Missing Links Discovered in Assyrian Tablets.
One name change of particular significance is the name Caucasian. Noah Webster’s First Edition of An American Dictionary of the English Language defines “Caucasian” in the simplest of terms:
Caucasian: Pertaining to Mount Caucasus in Asia [Minor].8
Webster’s Encyclopedia of Dictionaries is a little more descriptive:
Caucasian … a. belonging to Caucasia: Indo-European, i.e. pert. to the white race. n. (fr. the Caucasus, mountains near the Black Sea.9
Traditionally, historians have traced the migrations of the white race back to the west side of the Caucasus Mountains, but have confessed that they do not know where these millions of peoples came from. Ironically, those same historians have oftentimes traced the Israelites’ migrations to the east side of the Caucasus Mountains, but then declare they do not know where those millions of people eventually found residence. Those historians cannot see the obvious connection between Israelites and the Caucasians and that particular range of mountains. It is obvious from the historical record and from the archeological evidence now available, that those millions of Israelites crossed over or went around the Caucasus Mountains and became known as Caucasians. The following map illustrates the historical northwesterly trek of the ancient Israelites:
Click for larger view.
The Dead Sea Scrolls provide additional evidence which identifies the Israelites as white Celto-Saxons. In an article entitled “Another Look at the Past,” in the August 1981 edition of The Covenant Message, M. Stevens reported:
In the seventh Dead Sea Scroll, whoever wrote this extolled Sarah’s perfections from head to foot and while it was written in prose poem, the description as it appeared in the news media was as follows:
“Her [Sarah’s] skin was pure white;
She had long and lovely hair;
Her limbs were smooth and rounded and (her thighs were shapely;)
She had slender legs and small feet;
Her hands were slim and long and so were her fingers.”
Unfortunately, as far as is known, no description of Abraham appears in the Dead Sea scrolls, but as Sarah’s description is that of her racial attributes, one can only conclude that Abraham’s racial attributes [being a relative of Sarah’s – Gen. 2-12] would be identical.
The following description of Yeshua was written by Publius Lentrelus, a resident of Judea during the reign of Tiberius Caesar. It was discovered in the writings of Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, England, in the eleventh century:
There lives at this time in Judea a man of singular virtue whose name is Jesus Christ, whom the barbarians esteem as a prophet, but his followers love and adore him as the offspring of the immortal God.
… He [Yeshua] is a tall man, well-shaped, and of an amiable and reverend aspect; his hair of a color that can hardly be matched…. His forehead high, large, and imposing … his eyes bright blue, clear and serene….12
The Old Testament book, the Song of Solomon, confirms this description of Yeshua. Many theologians are convinced that the “husband” in this book is both Solomon and Yeshua the Messiah:
My beloved [husband] is white and ruddy, the chiefest among ten thousand. (Song of Solomon 5:10, KJV)
The following article which appeared in the Jewish Post and Opinion testified to the fact that the racial characteristics of the white race do not fit the Jews:
It was also established by Justice Byron White that Jews are not white in the 1987 U.S. Supreme Court Case of Shaare Tefila Congregation vs. John William Cobb, 481 U.S. 615. In that case the Jews were successful in being classified as non-whites by applying an 1865 Civil Rights decision which was written to insure recently freed blacks from being discriminated against by whites. Following are a few excerpts taken from that case:
The Jews were entitled to bring civil rights action against other members of what today is considered to be a part of the Caucasian race under federal rights statute prohibiting racially discriminatory interference with property rights; Jews were considered to be a distinct [non-white] race at time such statute was passed. 42 U.S. C.A. 1982
Section 1982 guarantees all citizens of the United States [specifically non-white Jews in this case], “the same right … as is enjoyed by white citizens….”13
Abraham and Sarah were the progenitors of the people who eventually became known as Israelites. If Abraham and Sarah were white, then their progeny must also have been white. Since the Jews admit to being non-white, we must look elsewhere for Abraham and Sarah’s offspring. Where else would we expect to find their white offspring but among those people known as Caucasians?
The apocryphal book of 2 Esdras provides additional clues as to where the Israelites would eventually come to settle. Although the two books of Esdras are not considered by most of Christendom to be inspired by the Holy Spirit (unlike the accepted books of the Canon of Holy Scripture), they are looked upon as being very dependable historical documents:
…thou [Esdras] sawest that he [Yeshua] gathered another peaceable multitude unto him; those are the ten tribes [of Israel], which were carried away prisoners out of their own land [Canaan] in the time of Osea [Hoshea] the king [of Israel], whom Shalmaneser the king of Assyria led away captive, and he carried them over the waters, and so came they into another land [Asia Minor]. But they [the Israelites] took this counsel among themselves, that they would leave the multitude of the heathen, and go forth into a further country, where never mankind dwelt [over the Caucasus Mountains into the lands we now call Europe and beyond to the North American continent among others], that they might there keep their [God’s] statutes, which they never kept in their own land [of Canaan]. (2 Esdras 13:39-42)
This passage from 2 Esdras is especially interesting in that it records a migration that was to continue beyond the environs of the heathen nations into distant lands that were essentially uninhabited. Is it simply wishful speculation that this pilgrimage found its fulfillment in the Israelites migrating into Europe, the British Isles and finally to America and beyond? Not at all! Recorded history verifies this migration of the Israelites.
Isaiah 49:1-20 records the same event as 2 Esdras, where we find Israel abiding in the isles (verse 1), located north and west of Palestine (verse 12), which identifies the British Isles. We are then told (verse 19) that these isles became too cramped for the descendants of the migrating Israelites (verse 19), and, therefore we find them leaving the isles in search of more room (verse 20), which surely identifies North America and other lands.
In 1320 in order to remain free from English control, some twenty-five Scottish nobles and King Robert (the Bruce) of Scotland drew up a petition which can be viewed at the Register House in Edinburgh. It was drawn up by Bernard de Linton who was Abbot of Aberbrothick and Chancellor of Scotland. It has been described by the Scots as “probably our most precious possession.” Known as the “Declaration of Independence,” it furnishes proof and dismisses all speculation regarding the Israelite ancestry of the Scots:
SCOTTISH DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE
We know, Most Holy Father and Lord, and from the chronicles and books of the ancients gather, that among other illustrious nations, ours, to wit the nation of the Scots, has been distinguished by many honours; which passing from the greater Scythia through the Mediterranean Sea and Pillars of Hercules, and sojourning in Spain among the most savage tribes through a long course of time, could nowhere be subjugated by any people however barbarous and coming thence one thousand two hundred years after the outgoing of the people of Israel, they, by many victories and infinite toil, acquired for themselves the possessions in the West, which they now hold … In their kingdom one hundred thirteen kings of their own royal stock, no stranger intervening, have reigned.
This noble testimony from 1320 A.D. provides impressive confirmation supporting the archeological evidence of Israel’s early migrations, and a wondrous historical legacy for the people of Scotland and their kin the world over.
Harry Lewis Golden, a prominent Jewish writer, provided yet another witness. In 1967 in an article entitled “Only in America – the 10 Lost Tribes,” he testified to the same Israelite origins:
Isaiah, the prophet, wrote that the remnant of Yahweh’s people would be found in the “isles of the sea.” Isn’t it reasonable this remnant [of Israel] may be the [Celto-Saxon] people of the British Isles?
…I shall proceed to unravel the great archeological riddle of the ages: What happened to the ten lost tribes?
…As they made their way across Europe, they left indelible evidence of their journey.
They called the places they stopped after the name of their tribe: thus Danube, Dnieper, Denmark, etc., all of which lay along their route of march.
The men of Dan eventually settled in Ireland….
…Along with the Danites, the other coastal tribes, the Asher, Manasseh, Ephraim and Simeon escaped [Assyrian King] Shalmaneser’s fury. Obviously, the Simeonites became the Simoni (or Cimerii) of Wales.
The Danites called their new home arzaret, which means “another Land of Israel”….
…These were the fellows who emigrated to the next island and came to call themselves Scotsmen for all “Scotch” means, as any student of Anglo-Saxon knows, is “Irisher.”*14
*A more complete quotation can be found in Chapter 7 – “Israel’s Scriptural Identity: Geographical Aspects.”
The caption beneath the following picture from U.S. News & World Report, March 30, 1987, reveals that even modern-day Khazar Jews, including New York City Mayor Ed Koch, understand that the Israelites eventually found their way to Ireland and Scotland:
However, we cannot leave these millions of Israelites in the British Isles. In one fifty-year period the greatest mass migration in the history of mankind took place when over forty million of these same Celto-Saxon people journeyed to a new virtually uninhabited land that was beyond the influence of the idolatrous religions of the East. These Israelites came to the shores of America. Could this have been the appointed place prophesied about in 2 Samuel 7:10? Is America that second land of promise?
In order to answer these questions, we must return to the time when Israel was still in Canaan. Near the end of Joshua’s campaign of conquest over the land of Canaan, it is said that God fulfilled His promises regarding that first land of promise:
…YHWH gave Israel all the land which He had sworn to give to their fathers, and they possessed it and lived in it. And YHWH gave them rest on every side, according to all that He had sworn to their fathers, and none of all their enemies stood before them; YHWH gave all their enemies into their hand. Not one of the good promises which YHWH had made to the house of Israel failed; all came to pass. (Joshua 21:43-45)
Although there were subsequent times of turmoil and unrest for the land, at the time of King David it was once again stated that there was peace and rest in that first land of promise:
…when the king lived in his house …YHWH had given him [King David and the nation of Israel] rest on every side from all his enemies…. (2 Samuel 7:1)
At that very time, the Prophet Nathan was sent to King David with a message from YHWH. Nathan spoke to David about a second land of promise:
Moreover I [YHWH] will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as beforetime. (2 Samuel 7:10 KJV)
This prophecy concerns a second land of promise. This is first proven by the fact that in the above passage the Israelites were already established and in control of Canaan, the first land of promise; and secondly, by the statement that they would not be moved again after entering this new land. Since the Israelites were later moved from Canaan as captives into Assyria and Babylon, Nathan’s prophecy could not apply to Israel at that time. Thirdly, it is proven by the manner in which King David interprets Nathan’s prophecy. Speaking to YHWH, David says:
…Thou [YHWH] hast spoken also of the house of Thy servant [King David] concerning the distant future….
In the distant future, European explorers blazed the trail for the millions coming to this new world. Regarding his motivation for undertaking such a perilous journey, Christopher Columbus wrote:
It was the Lord who put into my mind (I could feel his hand upon me) the fact that it would be possible to sail from here to the Indies. All who heard of my project rejected it with laughter, ridiculing me. There is no question that the inspiration was from the Holy Spirit, because He comforted me with rays of marvelous inspiration from the Holy Scriptures….
For the execution of the journey to the Indies I did not make use of intelligence, mathematics or maps. It is simply the fulfillment of what Isaiah prophesied….15
Isaiah’s prophecies support Columbus’ claim:
Surely the coastlands [“isles” – KJV] will wait for Me; and the ships of Tarshish will come first, to bring your [Israel’s] sons from afar…. (Isaiah 60:9)
Columbus sailed from Spain. At the time the Prophet Isaiah made the above prophecy southern Spain was called Tarshish!* Also consider the following prophecy of Isaiah:
Then it will come about in that day that the nations will resort to the root of Jesse [Yeshua the Christ], who will stand as a signal for the peoples; and His resting place will be glorious. Then it will happen on that day the Lord will again recover the second time with His hand the remnant of His people [from both houses of Israel], who will remain, from Assyria, Egypt, Pathros, Cush, Elam, Shinar, Hamath, and from the islands of the sea. And He will lift up a standard for the nations, and will assemble the banished ones of [the house of] Israel, and will gather the dispersed of [the house of] Judah from the four corners of the earth. (Isaiah 11:10-12)
*“Tarshish… 2. A place, presumably in the western Mediterranean region, conjecturally identified by many with Tartessus, an ancient city located on the Atlantic coast of Spain but long lost….” “TARSHISH,” The Zondervan Pictorial Bible Dictionary, edited by Merrill C. Tenney, (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan House, 1963) p. 827.
Several other Bible passages could be cited which appear to have been fulfilled by Columbus and those who followed him to this new land. The following poem from Philadelphia’s Public Ledger illustrates one of them:
THE DRAGON’S FLOOD
And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle that she might fly into the wilderness. Revelation 13:14
America, our heritage, long lay
A wilderness until the fateful day
When over stormy seas the Mayflower bore
The Pilgrim Fathers to New England’s shore.
There were no blasts of trumpets to proclaim
Their coming, all unheralded they came
To brave the danger of the unknown West
And found a home of hope for the oppressed
They were the pioneers of liberty –
They saw it not, with clearer sight we see
By God’s pre-vision they and we are those
Who make the desert blossom as the rose
For He who holds the waters in His hand
Has brought us to a larger promised land.
The westward course of Empire has been run
The West returns toward the rising sun
And brings her sheaves of bounty to restore
Old regions writhing in the throes of war,
We bring the horn of plenty we have found
Unto olden worn and battle-ridden ground.
We give our aid, our treasure and our blood,
To help to stem the torrent of the flood.
The Dragon’s mouth sent forth to overwhelm
This children of a God-appointed realm
Who fled into the Wilderness awhile,
Who are preserved like Moses in the Nile,
And He who knows His own, His chosen seed
And ever led his people, and will lead.16
Was it just a coincidence that this new land, America, was often called “the New World”? Was Columbus the only one who understood that his journey to the shores of America (and the subsequent migrations that followed) was the fulfillment of certain Bible prophecies made to the Israelites?
Further historical testimony abounds. The following quotations and events, listed chronologically, demonstrate that this understanding of Biblical prophecy was widespread among Celto-Saxon people in both Europe, Canada and America.
Alfred the Great, King of Wessex, England
During his reign from 871 to 899 the Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great declared:
Be ye kind to the stranger within thy gates, for ye [English people] were strangers in the land of the Egyptians.17
Scottish Declaration of Independence
In 1320 the Scottish Declaration of Independence, in which the Scots are addressed as Israelites, was drawn up by King Robert the Bruce and twenty-five Scottish nobles. This great document states the following regarding their migrations:
…the Scots … passing from the greater Scythia … and coming thence one thousand two hundred years after the outgoing of the people of Israel … acquired for themselves the possessions in the West….
Adam de Houghton, Bishop of Saint David, Wales
In 1377, Adam de Houghton, the Bishop of Saint David, Wales, delivered a speech before the British Parliament in which he recognized England as Israel:
…you may embrace your noble King … there is through him [King Edward III] that peace over Israel which the Scriptures name – Israel being the heritage of God, and that heritage being also England. For in good truth, I believe that God would never have honoured this country by victories such as had given glory to Israel, had He not intended it for His heritage also.18
William Tyndale, English Reformer and Martyr
In 1530 the great English religious reformer, William Tyndale, who translated the New Testament and the Pentateuch into English announced his amazing discovery:
…the properties of the Hebrew tongue agreeth a thousand times more with the English than with the Latin. The manner of speaking is both one; so that in a thousand places thou needest not but to translate it into the English, word for word; when thou must seek a compass in the Latin, and yet shall have much work to translate it well-favouredly, so that it have the same grace and sweetness, sense and pure understanding with it in the Latin, and as it hath in the Hebrew. A thousand parts better may it [the Hebrew tongue] be translated into the English, than into the Latin.19
American historian Lt. Col. Charles Hamilton Smith admitted:
…nations at times adopt a new language, to the total extinction of the tongue spoken by their ancestors….20
In many cases, however, some affinity can still be found between the old and new languages of a people, as is the case with the Hebrew and English languages. In a May 9, 1879, article entitled “The Israelites Found in the Anglo-Saxons,” the Jewish Chronicle announced:
Sharon Turner has made a list of no less than 247 Anglo-Saxon words which he believes to be of Semitic origin.21
In addition to the assimilation of Hebrew words into the English language, there is other evidence which is reflected in the thinking of early writers, explorers and men of distinction:
Sir Francis Drake, English Navigator and Admiral
In 1587 Sir Francis Drake, an explorer for Queen Elizabeth I, wrote to the religious writer John Foxe beseeching his prayers:
God may be glorious, His church, our Queen and country preserved, the enemies of truth vanquished, that we may have continued peace in Israel…. Our enemies are many, but our Protector [YHWH] commandeth the whole world….22
There are two similar prayers on plaques aboard the English ship, HMS Queen Mary, anchored in Long Beach Harbor at Long Beach, California. The first prayer is for the Royal Family of England and it identifies them and their subjects as Israelites:
He who giveth salvation unto kings
and dominion unto princes, whose kingdom is
an everlasting kingdom – may He bless
our sovereign lady, Queen Elizabeth,
the Queen Mother,
Philip, Duke of Edinburgh,
Charles, Prince of Wales
and all the royal family.
May the supreme King of kings in His mercy
Preserve her from all trouble and sorrow.
May He put a spirit of wisdom
and understanding into her heart
and into the hearts of all her counselors
that they may uphold the peace of the realm,
advance the welfare of the nation, and
deal kindly and truly with all Israel.
In her days and in ours,
may our Heavenly Father spread the Tabernacle
of peace over all the dwellers on earth; and
may the Redeemer come unto Zion;
and let us say: amen.
An almost identical prayer found on the second plaque is for the President and Vice President of the United States, and it also identifies them and their countrymen as Israelites:
He who giveth salvation unto kings
and dominions unto princes, whose Kingdom is
an everlasting Kingdom, who delivereth
His servant David from the hurtful sword;
who maketh a way in the sea and a path in the
mighty waters – may He bless, guard, protect
and help, exalt, magnify and highly aggrandize
our President and Vice-President
of the United States of America.
May the supreme King of kings in His mercy preserve
their lives and protect them, deliver them from
all sorrows, troubles and loss, subject nations to
their sway, and cause all their foes to fall before them;
and may the supreme King of kings in His mercy
inspire their hearts and the hearts of all their
counselors and representatives with tenderness,
to act kindly towards us and all Israel.
In their days and in ours
may Judah be saved and Israel dwell in safety,
and a Redeemer come unto Zion,
in accordance with God’s gracious will;
and let us say: amen.
Counsellor le Loyer, French magistrate
In 1590 the French Magistrate Counsellor le Loyer wrote a book in which he claimed the ten lost tribes of Israel went to England.23
William Harbourne, Leading London Merchant
In 1599 William Harbourne wrote the following in a letter to Robert Devereaux, Earl of Essex, an English soldier and courtier:
The Almighty bless you as He did Joshua and David, fighting as your honor shall His battles for tranquility and the propagation of His people, the English Israel.24
King James VI of Scotland and I of England
King James VI of Scotland (James I of England) (1566-1625), who commissioned the King James Bible, claimed that the Lord had made him King over Israel; the gold coin of his day, bearing his head was called the “Jacobus” and James had the reverse inscribed in Latin the prophecy of Ezekiel 37:22, “I will make of them one nation.”25
Pastor John Cotton, Puritan Clergyman
In 1630, prior to the departure of the ship Abrella for America with Massachusetts Bay Colony Governor John Winthrop and his fellow Puritans aboard, the young Puritan minister John Cotton preached a stirring farewell message taken from 2 Samuel 7:10:
I [YHWH] will appoint a place for My people Israel and will plant them, that they may live in their own place and not be disturbed….
Pastor Cotton further exhorted his audience:
Go forth … with a publick spirit … have a tender care … to your children, that they doe not degenerate as the Israelites did….26
American historian Samuel Eliot Morison wrote the following concerning Pastor Cotton’s sermon:
Cotton’s sermon was of a nature to inspire these new children of Israel with the belief that they were the Lord’s chosen people; destined, if they kept the covenant with Him, to people and fructify this new Canaan in the western wilderness.27
B. Woodbridge concluded his epitaph for Pastor John Cotton with the following words:
Though Moses [referring to Pastor John Cotton] be [dead], yet Joshua is not dead: I mean renowned [Pastor John] Norton; worthy he, Successor to our Moses, is to be. O happy Israel in America. In such a Moses, such a Joshua.28
Edward Johnson, English Historian
In 1630, historian Edward Johnson, writing of those early Puritan and Pilgrim settlers, often made reference to them being Israel:
…the Lambe [Yeshua] is preparing his Bride [Israel] … yee [Celto-Saxon settlers] the ancient Beloved of Christ [Israel], whom he of old led by hand from Egypt to Canaan through that great and terrible Wildernesse.29
…you [Celto-Saxon settlers] the Seed of Israel both lesse and more, the rattling of your dead bones is at hand, Sinewes, Flesh and Life: at the Word of Christ it comes.30
…you [Celto-Saxon] People of Israel gather together as one Man, and together as one Tree. Ezekiel 37 and 23.31
Then judge all you … whether these poore New England People, be not the forerunners of Christ’s Army, and the marvelous providences which you shall now heare, be not the very Finger of God, and whether the Lord hath not sent this people to Preach in this Wildernesse, and to proclaime to all Nations, the neere approach of the most wonderful workes that ever the Sonnes of men saw. Will not you believe that a Nation can be borne in a day [Isa. 66:8 – a Scripture that can only be fulfilled in Israel]?32
This year the great troubles in our native country encreasing, and that hearing prophane Esau had mustered up all thye Bands he could make to come against his brother Jacob, these wandering [Celto-Saxon] race of Jacobites [Israelites] deemed it now high time to implore the Lord for his especial aid in this time of their deepest distress.33
As Jacob professes, I came over this Jordan with my staff, and now have I gotten two Bands; so they came over this boisterous billow-boyling Ocean, a few poor scattered stones raked out of the heaps of rubbish, and thou Lord Christ has now so far exalted them, as to lay them sure in thy [American] Sion [Zion] … the seed of Christ’s Church in the posterity of Israel should be cut off, and therefore pleaded the promise of the Lord in the multiplying of his seed; so these [Celto-Saxon] people at this very time, pleaded not only the Lord’s promise to Israel, but to his only son Christ Jesus.34
Pastor Jonathan Mitchell, Puritan Preacher
On October 4, 1649, Pastor Jonathan Mitchell wrote in his diary:
…God will humble me before the sun, and in the sight of all Israel [in America].35
On August 8, 1667, at Pastor John Wilson’s funeral, Pastor Mitchell included the following in his eulogy:
Ah! Now there’s none who does not know, that this day in our [American] Israel, is fall’n a great and good man too….36
Nathaniel Morton, New Plymouth Court Secretary
In 1669, in New England’s Memorial, Nathaniel Morton wrote of God moving the seed of Abraham to New England:
That especially the seed of Abraham his servant, and the children of Jacob his chosen, may remember his marvelous works (Psal. 105.5,6.) in the beginning and progress of the planting of New-England, his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth; how that God brought a vine into this wilderness; that he cast out the heathen and planted them in the mountain of his inheritance (Exod. 15.13.) in respect of precious gospel-enjoyments. So that we [American Celto-Saxons] may not only look back to former experiences of God’s goodness to our [Israelite] predecessors, (though many years before) and so have our faith strengthened in the mercies of God for our times…37
…God … brought to nought their [the Indians’] wicked devices … until he had accomplished the freedom of his [American] Israel, by the overthrow of his and their enemies….38
I shall close up this small history with a word of advice to the rising generation…. God did once plant a noble vine in New-England, but it is degenerated into the plant of a strange vine. Jer. ii, 21. It were well that it might be said that the rising generation did serve the Lord all the days of such as in this our [American] Israel …Josh. xxiv, 31.39
Pastor James Keith, American Clergyman
On October 30, 1676, in a letter to Pastor John Cotton, Pastor James Keith wrote the following:
Let us join our prayers, at the throne of grace, with all our might, that the Lord would so dispose of all of public motions and affairs, that his Jerusalem, in this [American] wilderness, may be the habitation of justice and the mountain of holiness….40
John Dryden, English Poet and Dramatist
In 1681, John Dryden referred to England by the name Israel fourteen times in one poem.41
Pastor Increase Mather, American Clergyman and Author
In 1681, in a preface to a discourse on Urian Oakes, Pastor Increase Mather wrote the following:
…[Urian Oakes] at last called to the head of the “sons of the prophets” in this New-English Israel….42
Pastor John Bunyan, English Preacher and Author
Regarding the beliefs of Pastor John Bunyan (1628-1688), author of Pilgrim’s Progress, Rabbi Louis Finkelstein commented:
…Bunyan actually fancied himself an Israelite….43
Pastor Cotton Mather, American Clergyman and Historian
In 1702 a Boston minister Cotton Mather wrote the following concerning New England and some of her earlier inhabitants:
…in our hastening voyage unto the History of a new-English Israel.44
...I am going to give unto the Christian reader an history of some feeble attempts made in the American hemisphere to anticipate the state of the New-Jerusalem….45
These good people [the first settlers of Plymouth, Massachusetts] were now satisfied, they had as plain a command of Heaven to attempt a removal [from England, Ireland, and Scotland], as ever their father Abraham had for his leaving the Chaldean territories….46
Among these passengers were divers worthy and useful men, who were come to seek the welfare of this little Israel [in America]….47
The colony might fetch its own description from the dispensations of the great God, unto his ancient Israel, and say, “O, God of Hosts, thou has brought a vine out of England….”48
…whilst he [Massachusetts Bay Colony’s Governor John Winthrop] thus did, as our New-English Nehemiah, the part of a ruler in managing the public affairs of our American Jerusalem … he made himself still an exacter parallel unto the the governour of Israel….49
…to give them [Puritan Christians] such hearts as were in Abraham, and in others of their famous and faithful fathers.50
…to endeavor the preservation of the names and honour of them who have been fathers in Israel [in America]. On which account, I cannot but rejoice in what is here done. Although New-England has been favoured with many faithful and eminent ministers of God, there are only three of them all whose lives have been as yet published….51
Among these [New England ministers], one is Mr. John Allin…. I have been able to recover no more memoirs of a person whose virtues and merits were far from the smallest size among those who “did worthily in Israel [in America].”52
…an introduction unto this piece of New-English history; that when some ecclesiastical oppressions drive a colony of the truest Israelites into the remoter parts of the world, there was an academy quickly founded in that colony….53
…it was generally supposed among the pious people in the land that the enemies of New-England owed the wondrous disasters and confusions that still followed them, as much as to the prayers of this true Israelite [Thomas Cobbet] as to perhaps any one occasion.54
Make room, then, for Urian Oakes, ye records of New-England. He was born in England … whose liberal education in our College have rendered the family not he least in our little Israel.55
One that had an acquaintance with him, did him the justice of weeping over his grace such an epitaph as this:
…Here lies upright Nathanael [Mather], True off-spring of God’s Israel….56
Dean Jacque Abadie, French Educator and Author
In 1723, Dean Jacques Abbadie of Killaloe, Ireland, wrote regarding the whereabouts of the “lost” Israelites:
Unless the Ten Tribes of Israel are flown into the air, or sunk into the earth; they must be those ten Gothic [Celto-Saxon] Tribes that entered Europe in the fifth century, overthrew the Roman Empire and founded the ten nations of modern Europe.57
Alexander Cruden, Scottish Bible Concordance Compiler
In 1761, on a page addressed “TO THE KING” in the well-known Concordance of Alexander Cruden, the author renders this prayer:
May the great God be the guide of your life, and direct and prosper you, that it may be said by the present and future ages, that King George the Third hath been an Hezekiah to our British Israel.58
Men of Marlborough, Connecticut, Christian Patriots
In 1773, the men of Marlborough, Connecticut, made this proclamation:
Death is more eligible than slavery. A freeborn people [American Celto-Saxons] are not required by the religion of Jesus Christ to submit to tyranny, but may make use of such power as God has given them to recover and support their laws and liberties… (they) implored the Ruler above the skies, that He would make bare His arm in defense of His church and people, and let Israel go.59
Jonathan Trumbull, Connecticut Governor
In a letter dated July 13, 1775, to George Washington (then Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army) Jonathan Trumbull, Governor of Connecticut, wrote in part:
…be strong and very courageous, May the God of the Armies of [American] Israel shower down the blessings of His Divine Providence on You [General Washington].60
One may wonder at whether Governor Trumbull was referring to the Continental Army as one of the “armies of Israel.” There appears no question as to his intent when one reads another exhortation written in his own hand later that same year. In a public proclamation concerning Thanksgiving, dated October 14, 1775, Governor Trumbull proclaimed:
That God would … guide our affairs in this dark and difficult Day; and make them know what Israel ought to do … that He would confirm and increase Union and Harmony in the Colonies, and throughout America….61
Great Seal of the United States of America
On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress appointed a committee to design a seal for the emerging new nation. The committee was composed of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Adams. Both Franklin and Jefferson proposed designs related to ancient Israel. While John Adams’ contribution is not recorded here, he wrote to his wife, Abigail, on August 1, 1776, and described in part what the committee had thus far accomplished:
Dr. F[ranklin] proposes a Device for a seal. Moses lifting up his Wand, and dividing the Red Sea, and Pharaoh, in his Chariot overwhelmed with the Waters … The motto: Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God.
Mr. Jefferson proposed. The Children of Israel in the Wilderness, led by a Cloud by day, and Pillar of Fire by night, and on the others Side Hengist and Horsa, the Saxon Chiefs, from whom We claim the Honour of being descended and whose Political Principles and Form of Government We have assumed.62
Following are later depictions of these ideas by Franklin and Jefferson:
The symbology of America’s Great Seal suggests that these early Celto-Saxon statesmen understood that the people who settled this “new Canaan land” were the literal, physical descendants of the same people who settled the first Canaan land. When finally adopted, the Great Seal depicted many symbols of ancient Israel including seven sets of thirteen, the olive branch and the eagle:
Pastor John Clark, American Preacher
In 1781, in his election sermon, Pastor Jonas Clark spoke of the children of the captivity who came to this new land to serve God:
Under this happy [Massachusetts] constitution we have seen, to universal satisfaction, that blessed prophecy concerning GOD’S [Pastor Clark’s emphasis] people [Israel] after their return from captivity, literally fulfilled unto us [American Celto-Saxons]. “Their congregation shall be established before me – their nobles shall be of themselves, and their Governor shall proceed from the midst of them.” (Jer. 30:20-21)
May we not – yea, rather, ought we not, upon this joyful occasion, in a deep sense of our obligations to heaven, to ascribe the glory of all to GOD, and devoutly acknowledge that this is the LORD’S [Pastor Clark’s emphasis] doing; it is marvelous in our eyes!64
On this joyful day we are invited to see God, the Supreme ruler, on the throne of his holiness, the favour and defence of an afflicted land; “The princes of the people of the God of Abraham gathered together”: And “The Shields of the earth.” (Ps. 47:9) The rulers of every department, devoting themselves to the service of God and their country [America], in devout acknowledgement of his government, to the end, that God might be greatly exalted, in the good of his people [Israel], by their administration.65
Noah Webster, American Statesman and Lexicographer
In 1783, Noah Webster wrote The Elementary Spelling Book, better known as the Blue-Back Speller. Following “Lesson Number 123,” we find Mr. Webster’s sentiments regarding our Israelite relatives:
All Israelites are brethren, descendents of common parents. How unnatural and wicked it is to make war on our brethren, to conquer them or to plunder and destroy them.66
George Washington, American General and President
In 1785, George Washington referred to America as the “second land of promise,*67 and in his first inaugural address in April 1789 he accredited Providence for advancing the affairs of this new nation:
No People can be bound to acknowledge and adore the invisible hand [of YHWH], which conducts the Affairs of men more than the [Celto-Saxon] People of the United States. Every step, by which they have advanced to the character of an independent nation, seems to have been distinguished by some token of providential agency.68
*It has been suggested that the belief that the Israelites today are to be found in the Celto-Saxon peoples can be found in existence only as far back as 1787. Those who prefer to be dishonest with the facts at their disposal deceptively teach that this idea is traced back to a man by the name of Richard Brothers. In his book Identity: A History of the Christian Identity Movement, Pastor Michael C. Davis offers the following disinformation:
“The first recorded history of anyone claiming ‘Identity’ of Anglo-Saxon, Germanic, Scandinavian, Celtic, and Kindred peoples, as the ‘Lost Tribes of Israel,’ was a Religious fanatic by the name of Richard Brothers (1747-1824). Richard Brothers … moved to London in 1787. Shortly following his arrival in London, Mr. Brothers began proclaiming that he was a direct descendent of King David of Israel, the prince of the Hebrews, and the ruler of all the world. With a small following, Brothers demanded that King George III of England turn over the crown to him, as the rightful ruler of Israel. Brothers was confined as a criminal lunatic and was later moved to a private asylum until his release in 1806. It is believed that he wrote his book: ‘A revealed knowledge of the prophecies and times’ (2 Vol., 1794), while in the asylum.” Pastor Michael C. Davis, Identity: A History of the Christian Identity Movement (Omaha, NE: 1992) p. 1.
Any thinking person can see why opponents to the Identity message would want to trace this teaching back to Mr. Brothers. After all, Mr. Brothers was a “religious fanatic” and a “criminal lunatic” who was confined to an “asylum.” But quotations dating back to the Anglo-Saxon king Alfred the Great (849-899), expose the error of those who endeavor to discredit the Identity movement with such fallacious attempts as the one quoted above.
Thomas Jefferson, American Statesman and President
In 1814, in a letter written to Dr. Walter Jones regarding the death of President George Washington, Thomas Jefferson conveyed his belief in an American Israel:
I felt on his [George Washington’s] death, with my countyrmen, that “verily a great man hath fallen this day in [American] Israel.”69
Pastor B. Murphey, Canadian Preacher
In 1817, Pastor Murphey provided evidence for the Israelites’ migrations into Ireland:
Israelites came from Egypt into Ireland.70
Washington Irving, American Essayist, Novelist, and Historian
In 1824, in his story “The Devil and Tom Walker,” Washington Irving wrote the following about a man whom he named “Absalom Crowinshield” who lived in New England in the 1700s:
It was announced in the papers with the usual flourish, that “A great man had fallen in [American] Israel.”71
Sir Walter Scott, Scottish Poet and Novelist
In 1830, in his novel Woodstock, Scottish author Sir Walter Scott had Oliver Cromwell using these words:
…as my soul liveth, and as He [YHWH] liveth who hath made me [Oliver Cromwell] a ruler in [English] Israel….72
United States District Court for the District of Maine
On November 5, 1840, in a case titled The Huntress, 12 F. Cas. 984, 993 regarding Constitutional neglect, the U.S. District Court for the District of Maine declared:
…we may well ask, with some feelings of surprise, where during these seven years, were slumbering the watchmen of our American Israel.73
Pastor Fountain Elliott Pitts, American Preacher
In 1857 on the anniversary of George Washington’s birthday, Pastor F.E. Pitts preached two sermons in the Capitol of the United States at the request of several members of Congress. Both messages became a part of the Congressional Record and identified the United States as the land of regathered Israel.74
Pastor George T. Harding, Canadian Preacher
On July 23, 1879, Pastor George T. Harding acknowledged that he recognized the genetic connection between the Israelites of antiquity and modern-day Celto-Saxons:
Having become fully convinced of the truth of our [Celto-Saxon] identification with the Ten Tribes of Israel, I felt it to be my duty to acknowledge boldly my belief. It is my opinion that a belief in these truths is spreading very rapidly in Canada.75
Edward Payson Ingersoll, American Author
In 1886, Edward Payson Ingersoll wrote a book entitled Lost Israel Found in which he clearly declared who he believed Israel to be:
The promises made to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, [are] all fulfilled in the Anglo-Saxon Race.76
Admiral Lord John Fisher, English Admiral and Baron
The May 7, 1919, edition of the Times magazine published Admiral Lord John Fisher’s declaration that because the Celto-Saxons are Israel they are protected in war by God:
Why we win, in spite of our incredible blunders, is that we [Celto-Saxons] are the lost ten tribes of Israel.77
The truth concerning the true identity of Israel had become so widespread in England by 1879 that the editors of the Jewish Chronicle had to admit:
The most startling theory, however, is one which has sprung up within the last few years [it has already been established that an understanding in the Celto-Saxon Israelite identity had been around much longer than a few years at this point in time], and which discerns the lost Israelites, not in any distant, romantic people, but in the prosaic Englishmen who are literally our neighbours. The theory seems to be gaining ground, if we are to judge by the fact of there being in existence more than one periodical specially devoted to its exposition and promulgation. Meetings in support of it are constantly held; and there is scarcely a town of importance in this country [England] which does not contain some persons who earnestly believe in its truth.78
Rabbi Louis Finkelstein
In 1938, regarding Pastor John Bunyan (the English author of Pilgrim’s Progress) and other English Celto-Saxons, Rabbi Louis Finkelstein disclosed the following:
…Bunyan actually fancied himself an Israelite….
… The Hephzibahs and Mehitabels, the Leahs and the Rachels, whose names we still find on old New England tombstones, prove that the inner spirit recognized the relationship with ancient Hebraism [religion of the Israelites], even when the conscious mind denied it.79
Moses Guibbory, Author
In 1943, Moses Guibbory divulged that he understood the true identity of today’s Israelites.
…taken out of the hand of the daughters of the ten tribes of Israel (Anglo-Saxon female missionaries)….80
Dr. Alfred M. Lilienthal, Author
Since the Bible, archaeology and history concur, and since each furnishes evidence that the true identity of Israel is to be found in the Celto-Saxon peoples, then it should come as no surprise that in 1953 Dr. Alfred M. Lilienthal made the following observation in his book What Price Israel:
Here’s a paradox, a paradox, a most ingenious paradox: an anthropological fact, many [Celto-Saxon] Christians may have much more Hebrew-Israelite blood in their veins than most of their Jewish neighbors.81
In an address to the Cornell Club of Washington on September 10, 1985, Dr. Lilienthal also declared the following:
Many [modern-day Jews] of whom have clamored to go back [to Palestine] never had antecedents [physical ancestors] in that part of the world. Many [Celto-Saxons] who do not want to go back have had a better claim. [England’s] Queen Victoria herself belonged to an Israelite society that traced its membership to the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.82
Harry Lewis Golden (Herschel Goldhurst), Author
In 1967, Harry Lewis Golden testified that the Celto-Saxons were Israelites:
Isaiah, the prophet, wrote that the remnant of Yahweh’s people would be found in the “isles of the sea.” Isn’t it reasonable this remnant [of Israel] may be the [Celto-Saxon] people of the British Isles?
… As they [the ten lost tribes] made their way across Europe, they left indelible evidence of their journey….
These [Israelites] were the fellows who emigrated to the next island and came to call themselves Scotsmen….83
Ed Koch, Mayor of New York City
In 1987, New York City Mayor Ed Koch acknowledged this same truth:
The 10 lost tribes of Israel we [Jews] believe ended up in Ireland.84
Yair Davidy, Author
The discovery of Israel’s modern-day identity is becoming very widespread as demonstrated by the Israeli, Yair Davidy. In 1994, Mr. Davidy testified to the Israelite roots of the Celto-Saxons:
…most of the ancient Israelites assimilated to foreign cultures and forgot their origins. In the course of time they reached the British Isles and north-west Europe whence related nations (such as the U.S.A.) were founded.85
…most of the ancient Israelites were exiled and lost their identity … their [Celto-Saxon] descendants are to be found mainly amongst the “Gentile” peoples of North America, Northwest Europe, Australasia and South Africa.86
These claims are not far-fetched. They are supported by Biblical, Historical, and other evidence much of which is, in effect, not even recognized by the academic world, which simply has not sufficiently co-related the information in its possession and not drawn the necessary conclusions from the proof it already acknowledges.87
The Israelites were transported en masse firstly mainly to areas in northern Mesopotamia and to Hara and from those regions they later moved northward into “Scythia” … whence they migrated in several waves to the extreme north and west of Europe from which their [Celto-Saxon] descendants settled North America, Australasia, and South Africa.88
The descendants of the Northern Hebrews today must be sought for in Europe [and in countries to which they later migrated] more than anywhere else.89
A mountain of evidence declares that in the early history of Great Britain, Canada and America the truth of Israel’s identity was accepted by many thinking people. Why have these truths not been taught to us in American history? They have not been taught to us because there are those who have designs to keep true Israel blind to her identity and who thus suppress these facts of history, anthropology and archaeology. Let them be suppressed no longer! May God Almighty be glorified as He opens the eyes of many more people to this most revealing and wonderful truth!
2. James Strong, “Greek Dictionary of the New Testament,” Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 1990) p. 23.
3. Flavius Josephus (Joseph ben Mattityahu ha-Cohen), Antiquities of the Jews (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 1960) book 11, chapter 5, verse 2, p. 234.
4. “The Israelites Found in the Anglo-Saxons,” Jewish Chronicle (London, UK: 2 May 1879) p. 3.
5. Kenneth Samuel Wuest, Studies in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament for the English Reader (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1945) p. 130.
6. E. Raymond Capt, M.A., A.I.A., F.S.A., Abrahamic Covenant (Thousand Oaks, CA: Artisan Books) p. 16.
7. “Tribes, Lost Ten,” The Jewish Encylcopedia (New York, NY: Funk and Wagnalls Company, 1905) vol. 12, p. 249.
8. Noah Webster, “Caucasians,” Noah Webster’s First Edition of An American Dictionary of the English Language, 1828 edition reprinted (San Francisco, CA: Foundation for American Christian Education, 1967)
9. “Caucasian,” Webster’s Encyclopedia of Dictionaries (Baltimore, MD: Ottenheimer Publishers, Inc., 1958) p. 64.
12. Publius Lentrelus, quoted in E. Raymond Capt, M.A., A.I.A., F.S.A., The Resurrection Tomb (Thousand Oaks, CA: Artisan Books, 1988) p. 75.
13. Supreme Court Justice Byron White, decision for a unanimous court, “Shaare Tefila Congregation vs. John William Cobb, 481 U.S. 615, 107 S.CT. 2019, 95 L.Ed. 2d 594 (1987).”
14. Harry Lewis Golden (Herschel Goldhurst), “Only in America: The 10 Lost Tribes,” Heritage Southwest Jewish Press, 20 April 1967, vol. 5727, no. 31, pp. 1, 34.
15. Christopher Columbus, Book of Prophecies. “…a compilation of the teachings and prophecies from the Bible on the subject of the earth, distant lands, population movements, and undiscovered tribes, as well as similarly pertinent writings of the ancient Church fathers. Available only in Spanish … much of this work has been privately translated by August J. Kling, who quoted these excerpts in an article in The Presbyterian Layman, October 1, 1971,” quoted in Peter Marshall, David Manuel, The Light and the Glory (Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming, H. Revell Company, 1977) p. 17.
16. Public Ledger (Philadelphia, PA) quoted in Pastor George Southwick, Kingdom Treasure (Santa Maria, CA: Bible Educator Ministry) Issue 117.
17. King Alfred the Great, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 149.
18. Adam de Houghton, Bishop of Saint David, Wales, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 152.
19. William Tyndale (William Hutchins – pseudonym), “The Obedience of a Christian Man,” preface, in Gervase E. Duffield, ed., The Work of William Tyndale (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1965) p. 326.
20. Lt. Col. Charles Hamilton Smith, The Natural History of the Human Species (Boston, MA: Gould & Lincoln, 1851) p. 99.
21. “The Israelites Found In The Anglo-Saxons,” The Jewish Chronicles (London, UK: 9 May 1879) p. 3.
22. Sir Francis Drake, quoted in Thomas William Edward Roche, The Golden Hind (New York, NY: Praeger Publishers, 1973) pp. 177-178.
23. Counellor le Loyer, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 143.
24. William Harbourne, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 155.
25. Robert Alan, Your Inheritance: The Best Kept Secret In The World (Mountain City, TN: Sacred Truth Ministries, 1993) p. 69.
26. Pastor John Cotton, D.D., sermon to fellow Puritans departing for America in 1630, God’s Promise to His Plantation (London, UK: William Jones, 1630)
27. Samuel Eliot Morison, Colonial America (1887) p. 25.
28. B. Woolbridge, quoted by Pastor Cotton Mather, D.D., Magnalia Christi Americana: or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, 1702 and subsequent editions reprinted (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 1967) vol. 1, p. 284.
29. Edward Johnson, Johnson’s Wonder-Working Providences of Sion’s Savior in New England (New York, NY: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910) p. 59.
30. Johnson, p. 60.
31. Johnson, p. 60.
32. Johnson, p. 60-61.
33. Johnson, pp. 237-238.
34. Johnson, p. 238.
35. Pastor Jonathan Mitchell, quoted in Pastor Cotton Mather, D.D., Magnalia Christi Americana: or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, 1702 and subsequent editions reprinted (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 1967) vol. 2, p. 89.
36. Pastor Jonathan Mitchell, quoted in Nathaniel Morton, New England’s Memorial (Cambridge, MA: S.G. and M.J. for John Usher, 1669), reproduced with extracts from other writers (Boston, MA: Congregational Board of Publication, 1854) p. 329.
37. Nathaniel Morton, New England’s Memorial (Cambridge, MA: S.G. and M.J. for John Usher, 1669) reproduced with extracts from other writers (Boston, MA: Congregational Board of Publication, 1854) pp. 13-14.
38. Morton, p. 123.
39. Morton, p. 342.
40. Pastor James Keith, quoted in Nathaniel Morton, New England’s Memorial (Cambridge, MA: S.G. and M.J. for John Usher, 1669), reproduced with extracts from other writers (Boston, MA: Congregational Board of Publication, 1854) p. 455.
41. John Dryden, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 155.
42. Pastor Increase Mather, quoted in Pastor Cotton Mather, D.D., Magnalia Christi Americana: or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, 1702 and subsequent editions reprinted (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 1967) vol. 2, p. 117.
43.Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, foreword to the first edition, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (Philadelphia: PA: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1938) p. xix.
44. Pastor Cotton Mather, D.D, Magnalia Christi Americana: or, The Ecclesiastical History of New-England, 1702 and subsequent editions reprinted (New York, NY: Russell & Russell, 1967) vol. 1, p. 44.
45. Mather, vol. 1, p. 46.
46. Mather, vol. 1, p. 48.
47. Mather, vol. 1, p. 60.
48. Mather, vol. 1, p. 81.
49. Mather, vol. 1, p. 121.
50. Mather, vol. 1, p. 234.
51. Mather, vol. 1, p. 246.
52. Mather, vol. 1, pp. 460-461.
53. Mather, vol. 1, p. 464.
54. Mather, vol. 1, p. 521.
55. Mather, vol. 2, p. 114.
56. Mather, vol. 2, p. 176.
57. Dean Jacques (James) Abbadie, Le Triomphe de la Providence et de la Religion (Amsterdam, Netherlands: Chez M. C. le Cene, 1723) quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 144.
58. Alexander Cruden, A.M., A Complete Concordance to the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament (London, UK: for J. Knapton, 1761).
59. Men of Marlborough, Connecticut, quoted in George Bancroft, History of the United States (Boston, MA: Little, Brown and Company, 1854) vol. 6, p. 442.
60. Governor Jonathan Trumbull, letter to George Washington regarding a Continental Fast Day for July 20, 1775, quoted in Philander D. Chase, W.W. Abbot, Dorothy Twohig, eds., The Papers of George Washington (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1987) p. 112.
61. Governor Jonathan Trumbull, Thanksgiving Proclamation on November 16, 1775.
62. Abigail and John Adams, The Book of Abigail and John, reprinted (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975) p. 154-156, quoted in Richard S. Patterson and Richardson Dougall, The Eagle and the Shield (Washington, DC: Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs, Department of State, 1978) p. 18.
64. Pastor Jonas Clark, Mr. Clark’s Election Sermon (Boston, MA: J. Gill, 1781) p. 51. 65.
65. Clark, p. 53.
66. Noah Webster, “Lesson Number 123,” The Elementary Spelling Book – Blue-Back Speller, 1783 edition reprinted (1829) p. 115.
67. George Washington, John Frederick Schroeder, comp., Maxims of Washington (New York, NY: D. Appleton and Company, 1894) p. 143.
68. President George Washington, first inaugural address in April 1789, quoted in Philander D. Chase, W.W. Abbot, ed., Dorothy Twohig, ed., The Papers of George Washington (Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1987) p. 174.
69. Thomas Jefferson, Albert Ellery Bergh, ed., The Writings of Thomas Jefferson (Washington, DC: The Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association of the United States, 1907), quoted in Andrew M. Allison, et.al., The Real Thomas Jefferson (Washington, DC: National Center for Constitutional Studies, 1981) vol. 14, p. 52.
70. Pastor B. Murphey, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 145.
71. Washington Irving, “The Devil and Tom Walker,” The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Other Stories (New York, NY: Lancer Books, Inc., 1968) p. 195.
72. Sir Walter Scott, Woodstock (Edinburgh, Scotland: Adam & Charles Black, 1831) p. 387.
73. United States District Court for the District of Main, “The Huntress, 12 F.Cas. 984, 993 (1840),” quoted in Robert Alan, Your Inheritance: The Best Kept Secret In The World (Mountain City, TN: Sacred Truth Ministries, 1994) p. 185. Other citations for this case are: “4 Hunt Mer. Mag. 83,” “2 Ware 89,” “4 West.L.J. 38,” “24 Amer.Jur. 486, No. 6914,” “Dav. 82.”
74. Pastor Fountain Elliott Pitts, two sermons preached in Washington, DC, in 1857, Congressional Record (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office), quoted in The U.S.A. in Bible Prophecy (Baltimore, MD: J.W. Bull, 1862).
75. Pastor George T. Harding, quoted in These Are Ancient Things (Burnaby, BC, Canada: The Association of the Covenant People) p. 144.
76. Edward Payson Ingersoll, Lost Israel Found: or, The Promises made to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob, All Fulfilled in the Anglo-Saxon Race (Topeka, KS: Kansas Publishing House, 1886) cover.
77. Admiral Lord John Arbuthnot Fisher, quoted in Robert Alan, Your Inheritance: The Best Kept Secret In The World (Mountain City, TN: Sacred Truth Ministries, 1994) p. 166.
78. “The Israelites Found In The Anglo-Saxons,” Jewish Chronicles (London, UK: 2 May 1879) p. 4.
79. Rabbi Louis Finkelstein, foreword first edition, The Pharisees: The Sociological Background of Their Faith (Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1938) pp. xix-xx.
80. Moses Guibbory, David Horowitz, trans., The Bible in the Hands of Its Creators: Biblical Facts As They Are (Jerusalem, Israel: The Polygon Press, Inc., 1943)
81. Dr. Alfred M. Lilienthal, What Price Israel (Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Company, 1953) p. 223.
82. Dr. Alfred M. Lilienthal, Middle East Terror – The Double Standard: Address (Washington, DC: The 30th Anniversary Fund, Phi Beta Kappa Association, 1985) p. 5.
83. Harry Lewis Golden (Herschel Goldhurst), “Only in America: The 10 Lost Tribes,” Heritage Southwest Jewish Press, 20 April 1967, vol. 5727, no. 31, pp. 1, 34.
84. New York City Mayor Ed Koch, quoted in Richard Drew, “Begorra, it’s Mr. Mayor,” Picture Of The Week, U.S. News and World Report, 30 March 1987, p. 7.
85. Yair Davidy, The Tribes (Hebron, Israel: Russell-Davis Publishers, 1994) p. xiv.
86. Davidy, p. 1.
87. Davidy, p. 2.
88. Davidy, p. 7.
89. Davidy, p. 87.
Chapter 11 Table of Contents Chapter 13